Chandigarh,Â designed by the French architect Le Corbusier, is the capital of the Indian states of Punjab and Haryana. Though Simla was chosen as temporary headquarters, the need for a permanent capital, resulted in the birth of a new city at the foothills of the Shivalik hills. Chandigarh, then became the new capital of Punjab and Haryana. But the administration of the capital itself was neglected, which was solved, by making it a Union Territory under the Central Government on 1 November 1966.
Covering an area of 56 square kilometres, Chandigarh is the first `planned’ city of India. The city has neatly laid out roads and parks, buildings ranging against mountain peaks, boulevards and streets lined by endless rows of trees and shrubs. The city is named after the Goddess Chandi Devi, whose white – domed temple stands on the slope of a hill in the north east of Chandigarh, on the edge of the Shivalik hills. Spread over an area of 114 sq. kms, it is a modern city, built in 47 sectors (excluding the unlucky number 13). Each sector consists of market places and shopping centers. All the sectors are interconnected by State Transport buses, auto-rickshaws and taxis. This city has its population drawn from every community and region in India,and ranks second in literacy among the country’s states and union territories.
Chandigarh has about 15 medium and large scale industrial units. These include soft drinks, electric meters, antibiotics, electronic components and equipment, bio-medical equipment, tractor parts, cement pipes and tiles, and washing machines.